This historical narrative tells the story of the shelling of Sydney and Newcastle in 1942 by Japanese submarines. Although casualties and damage were slight, the bombardments fuelled the real fear of an impending Japanese invasion, a fate dreaded by Australians for a century before 1942. The narrative reconstructs the events that occurred in both cities and includes the search for, recovery and disposal of unexploded shells. In recounting this legendary tale of two cities, the book also examines Australia's east coast defences, the activities of the National Emergency Service, and the management and communications structures that were implemented during the early stages of the Pacific War. To put it all into context, A Parting Shot also offers a Japanese perspective to the story through a critical account of Japan's submarine operations in Australian waters. Why did the Japanese launch submarine operations in Australian waters when they had no intention of invading? Were the bombardments revenge attacks following the Japanese defeat at Midway? What were the Japanese targets in Sydney and Newcastle? Were all the unexploded shells recovered? A Parting Shot answer these and other long-standing questions, dispelling many rumours and urban myths surrounding the Japanese submarine attacks.
This unique and timely book analyses the problem of financing civil litigation. The expert contributors discuss the legal possibilities and difficulties associated with several instruments - including cost shifting, fee arrangements, legal expense insurance and group litigation. The authors assess the impact of these instruments from a law and economics perspective and provide empirical information on the way in which they work in practice. A transatlantic perspective on financing civil litigation is also provided. New Trends in Financing Civil Litigation in Europe reveals that as well as improving access to justice, several instruments have the potential to screen cases based on their quality. The book also shows how the choice of instrument can affect the behaviour of actors throughout the litigation process. This insightful book will appeal to academics and postgraduates in the fields of private law and law and economics. Law firms and insurance companies offering legal expense insurance will also find this book a valuable read.
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