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This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. There is a clear movement towards multilingual practices in the contemporary world, evinced by the title of UNESCO's 2003 education position paper, "Education in a Multilingual World". With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. Nonetheless, most existing books on language education in general and books on bilingualism and multilingualism in particular have largely ignored or simply eluded the concept of globalization and its influences on language education policies and practices. This book brings together some of latest controversies and case studies from South East Asia, the most diverse and multilingual context in the world, along with various other diverse contexts of importance. This book will be of interest to graduate students and advanced undergraduates in sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, and bilingual and multicultural education, second and foreign language educators, and other specialists in these fields.
Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. These may be of many types including papillary, follicular, Hurthle cell (aka oxyphilic or oncocytic), or medullary cancers. Surgery plays an important role in treating these cancers. The thyroid concentrates iodine and so is extremely sensitive to the effects of various radioactive isotopes of iodine produced by nuclear fission. These radioactive isotopes increase the chances of developing cancer, though thyroid cancer can develop even without any exposure to radioactivity. Some evidence suggests that insufficient or excessive dietary iodine may also increase the risk for thyroid cancer. This book presents the latest research in this field.
This book focuses on tourism sectors and models the latest trends in tourism activity while providing a new vision for contemporary tourism economy. Tourism is a sector confronting new challenges for advanced and developing economies. Despite global challenges, tourism continues to be a dynamic sector stimulating social and economic development. Moreover, many scientific challenges are identified in order to model and explain countries tourism sectors, regional and local conditions of tourism and territories sustainability. In addition, a set of models is provided in this book, contributing to a new vision for contemporary tourism economies, showing new tendencies in this sector and following a scientific approach concerning new policy design aimed at understanding and explaining a new philosophy carried out by governments in terms of the management of the tourism sector. On the other hand, the private sector of economic business opportunities considering the perspectives of tourism are also considered. This book serves as an excellent guide for agents either in public or private sector buildings on the associated scientific methodologies concerning their strategic planning. Therefore, the aim of the present book is to provide some contribution to the areas highlighted above.
D. Hilbert, in his famous program, formulated many open mathematical problems which were stimulating for the development of mathematics and a fruitful source of very deep and fundamental ideas. During the whole 20th century, mathematicians and specialists in other fields have been solving problems which can be traced back to Hilbert's program, and today there are many basic results stimulated by this program. It is sure that even at the beginning of the third millennium, mathematicians will still have much to do. One of his most interesting ideas, lying between mathematics and physics, is his sixth problem: To find a few physical axioms which, similar to the axioms of geometry, can describe a theory for a class of physical events that is as large as possible. We try to present some ideas inspired by Hilbert's sixth problem and give some partial results which may contribute to its solution. In the Thirties the situation in both physics and mathematics was very interesting. A.N. Kolmogorov published his fundamental work Grundbegriffe der Wahrschein- lichkeitsrechnung in which he, for the first time, axiomatized modern probability theory. From the mathematical point of view, in Kolmogorov's model, the set L of ex- perimentally verifiable events forms a Boolean a-algebra and, by the Loomis-Sikorski theorem, roughly speaking can be represented by a a-algebra S of subsets of some non-void set n.
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